Environmental Management – Green Energy and Carbon Trading.

Our experienced team is dedicated to helping clients reduce their carbon footprint while seizing opportunities in carbon markets. From tailored strategies to innovative approaches, we assist businesses across diverse sectors in achieving their environmental and financial goals. We understand that every business is unique. That’s why we take a personalized approach to Environmental Management – Carbon Trading. Our journey with each client begins by gaining a deep understanding of their operations, goals, and current environmental practices. This allows us to develop comprehensive strategies that not only reduce carbon emissions but also align with their overall business objectives.

We believe in the power of collaboration. Our team collaborates closely with clients to implement sustainable practices that drive positive environmental impact and financial growth. From assessing carbon inventories to developing emission reduction roadmaps, we guide our Clients at every step of the process. We stay up-to-date with the latest trends and regulations in the carbon trading landscape to ensure that our Clients remain ahead of the curve.

Choosing REX as your partner in Environmental Management – Carbon Trading means gaining access to a team of experts who are passionate about creating a more sustainable future. Our track record in delivering results speaks for itself – we have already helped numerous Clients navigate the intricate world of carbon markets and emissions reduction.

Beyond our technical expertise, we are committed to transparent communication and long-term partnerships. We pride ourselves on being accessible to our Clients, addressing their concerns promptly, and continuously refining our strategies to meet evolving environmental challenges. By choosing us, you are choosing a trusted ally in your journey toward environmental responsibility and economic prosperity.

implications of covid-19 on contracts, labour & employment, immigration and tax laws

There are no specific provisions under the Tanzania Employment and Labour Relations Act or the subsidiary legislations that address states of emergency like the Corona Pandemic however, one can borrow from the general provisions of the referred legislations in this article. The corona pandemic has without any doubt disrupted business and the way we do things leading to some businesses closing while others may be contemplating downsizing or even closure due to reduced operations or activities and drastic reduction in revenues while overheads including payment of salaries and related HR costs remain high.

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implications of the covid-19 pandemic on the banking industry and the role that mergers and acquisitions may play

The recent announcement of TPB Bank Plc’s (“TPB”) merger with TIB Corporate Bank Limited (“TIB’) was met with much optimism especially within the Tanzanian banking and media industry. This is owed to the fact that TPB has now joined a unique group of commercial banks operating in Tanzania that hold assets amounting to TZS 1 trillion (approximately USD 431 million) or more. This follows the government owned lender’s acquisition of the assets and liabilities of TIB, which is also a government majority owned bank.

This signals a continued shift towards consolidation within the banking industry but also further raises questions of the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on the banking industry and the role that mergers and acquisitions may play in its consequences.

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convening of annual general meetings (“AGM”) of public companies in the wake of covid-19

  • public listed companies are planning to hold their annual general meeting as we are now in the second quarter of the year
  • with a large number of shareholders/members, physical meeting without possible social distancing is not only discouraged but it raises public health safety questions
  • REX discusses below how public companies can convene and hold their respective general meetings in compliance with the requirements of the Companies Act, Cap 212 and other regulatory compliance requirements

the Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted, globally, the way we do business. Because it spreads through contact and interaction of people and very fast, the response to the pandemic by Governments has been extraordinary including total lockdowns in many countries with severe restrictions on movement of people and human to human contacts. Even where companies may be permitted to hold meetings, they feel responsible for the public health safety of their employees and would have the same concerns for their shareholders with regard to the holding of annual general meetings.

public companies must hold a general meeting of all shareholders/members annually. The practice has been a physical meeting where all members convene in one large hall interacting for a whole day or even longer. However, with Covid-19 the Tanzania Government has restricted meetings involving large numbers of people or unnecessary travel. The World Health Organization has recommended avoiding close contact by maintaining a distance of one meter/three feet (social distancing), between persons. Current size of meeting halls makes it impossible to comply with the WHO guidelines. Public listed companies must therefore consider alternative options for holding of their general meetings in the wake of Covid-19.

mandatory provisions for holding annual general meeting:

the Companies Act Cap. 212 and the Capital Markets and Securities Act, 2004 require public listed companies to hold general meeting of all shareholders/members annually. Every shareholder/member is entitled to receive notice, to attend the meeting and to vote thereat. While it is common for articles of associations to provide for meetings by circular resolution or virtual meetings, there are few with provisions for circular meetings of shareholders or even virtual meetings. Section 147 of the companies Act provides for an annual general meeting to be held by circular resolution signed by all the members or in their behalf in lieu of a general meeting and, in the event, may decide on anything save the removal of a director.
this poses practical problems for public companies that have thousands of shareholders for each one of them to sign the resolution or to get each shareholder to appoint proxy. Further, the Companies Act does not provide for who may sign a resolution on behalf of all shareholders and thus take decisions on their behalf. Yet good governance practices require all members to participate in decisions of required to be taken at the level of shareholders/members. Articles of association may provide for who may sign a circular resolution on behalf of all members and limit such decisions only to regulatory compliance decisions that are time sensitive. Thus article 147 of the Companies Act does not fully respond to the challenges posed by Covid-19, which should give every shareholder access to and to participate in the annual general meeting.

virtual annual general meeting:

the world is turning to virtual meetings during the Covid-19 pandemic. Even though virtual meetings were happening before, the extraordinary circumstances brought about by Covid-19, have made it almost the only viable option for meetings involving large numbers of people. Virtual meetings via digital connection is becoming the norm during Covi-19 pandemic. Regional and global organizations have been forced to do virtual meetings, e.g., African Union heads of state Zoom meeting recently, chaired by President Cyril Ramaphosa of South Africa, to discuss among other things Covid-19.

where Articles of Association have no provision for virtual annual general meeting:

if the Articles of Association do not provide for virtual directors’  nor members’ meetings, the directors being few in number, may meet physically, while observing the recommended social distancing, to among other things, adopt a resolution proposing changes to the Articles of Association to provide for virtual meetings both at the level of the Board and the shareholders/members. Standard article providing for virtual meetings may contain wording closely similar to the following:

“the Company may conduct board, shareholders or committee meetings entirely by electronic communication or provide for participation in a meeting by electronic communication…”

subject to the notice requirement as indicated below, the board will propose to the members to meet virtually and adopt as their first substantive agenda item the proposed special resolution changing the Articles to provide for holding of meetings virtually. The resolution should address the protocol to be put in place by the Company to enable all members to participate and the recording of the minutes. Once adopted, the meeting will proceed to the other requisite substantive agenda of the general meeting.

the provisions for virtual meetings should allow for members to meet physically if they wish, at venues provided by the Company whereat they can easily electronically access to and participate in the meeting while meeting the social distancing guidelines. The Company Secretary should facilitate such venues with appropriate platforms with the necessary electronic communication devices.

where a company’s Articles of Association provide for virtual annual meeting:

where a company’s Articles of Association contain provisions permitting virtual meetings the board may proceed to convene the general meeting virtually. The notice convening the general meeting must clearly state that the meeting will be held virtually and that the Company is making arrangement for the requisite electronic communication platform to enable members to access the meeting either via zoom or webinar or the like. It may be necessary to also state who will pay for the cost of the electronic communication. If it is the practice for shareholders/members to pay for their own costs, it can be assumed that they will meet the costs without so stating n the notice.

the notice convening the virtual general meeting:

the notice convening the meeting must be of 21 days as required by the Companies Act especially where a special resolution is being considered as is with the case of amending the Articles of Association. If notice has not being issued as appropriate the required majority for passing the resolution will be 95% of shareholders/members entitled to receive notice and attend the meeting which may not be tenable. As such the notice period is critical. In addition, the agenda intended to amend the Articles must be indicated as a special business because any business conducted at an annual general meeting which is not specified under the Companies Act, is considered special business.

the shareholders/members must also be informed in the notice convening the meeting of the ability to participate in the meeting virtually and how to access the meeting and shall provide any necessary information to enable shareholders/members or their proxies to access the available medium or means of electronic communication. If the shareholders/members or proxies shall pay the cost of accessing the media for communication, it should also be stated in the notice convening the meeting.

for companies that will have adopted articles of association provisions providing for virtual annual general meetings, the Secretary to the company must make sure that the resolutions are  filed with the Registrar of Companies within the time limits provided in the Companies Act and for companies such as banks requiring  prior regulatory approval that such prior approval are obtained before  the meeting.

Given the challenges presented by Covid-19, the regulatory approval of the resolution to amend the Articles of Association may be presented together with the nocte under a certificate of urgency and no doubt the regulatory agency will respond as appropriate.


the world is going virtual. It was already but Covid-19 has hastened the process and now companies have no choice but to adopt. There is no excuse, companies must comply with the statutory requirement to convene the annual general meeting and virtual meeting is the tenable option.

For further enquiry please contact our Amb. Mwanaidi Maajarm.maajar@rexattorneys.co.tz and Dr Alex Ngulumaa.nguluma@rexattorneys.co.tz.

review of the new Arbitration Act, no-2 of 2020 (“the Arbitration Act”)

In February, 2020, Parliament enacted the Arbitration Act (No. 2 of 2020) under a certificate of urgency, replacing the Arbitration Act, (Cap. 15 R.E. 2002), one of the few remaining statutes enacted under the colonial administration. The new Act introduces new methods of dispute resolution including adjudication and reconciliation and brings into the Act certain criminal conduct that may be dealt with through conciliation.

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an overview of the Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act, (Act no. 1 of 2020)

The Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act, (Act No-1 of 2020), the very first enactment made in 2020, has amended various laws, with only one purpose, to cloth any local government, government agency or entity, public corporation or any entity where Government has equity, with sovereign immunity in relation to suits and execution of court decrees and related matters.

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Intellectual Property Law

REX provides a full range of services in intellectual property rights mainly relating to patents and trademarks. REX works closely with its corporate clients with a view to maximizing clients’ IP assets and fight unwelcomed IP claims from or passing off by third parties. We have represented clients in the telecommunication, manufacturing, services and financial sectors in various forms of IP claims.

Criminal Law Practice

The REX criminal defence and forensic team represents clients in white collar criminal cases, regulatory enforcement matters, internal investigations, trials and appeals. REX focuses on public companies and privately owned businesses of all sizes, as well as their directors and officers, licensed professionals, and other individuals.

REX helps companies and their boards undertake internal investigations of fraud, corruption, embezzlement and other business crimes, and advises on compliance policies, assisting with due diligence in corporate transactions and in the end, help clients better manage or mitigate business risks arising from deliberate or accidental actions of their employees at all levels.

Mergers & Acquisitions

REX has accumulated experience in matters relating to mergers and acquisitions including the undertaking of due diligence on target companies subject of the acquisition and issuing due diligence reports, advising on the competition compliance requirements, advising on corporate restructuring arising from mergers and acquisitions, handling employees’ retrenchment and/or reallocation, advising on the statutory requirements of asset transfers and registration as well as creditor protection, along with advice on tax implications and where applicable, capital markets and securities.

In addition, REX assists merging entities in reviewing, commenting, negotiating and finalising all relevant documentation for the merger based on the prevailing legal and regulatory regime for mergers and acquisitions and related transactions as well as all other transactional documents to complete and perfect a merger or acquisition or a sale of assets. We also have expertise in drafting all relevant transactional documents necessary for a merger or sale as well as those documents required by law for purposes of submissions for consents or approvals or registration and providing general legal advice and opinion as may be required by a client or regulatory agencies and assisting in the submission, or filing or registration of the transactional documents as the case may be.

Land Law & Property Conveyance

REX has for many years advised clients in relation to property transactions which have become increasingly complex and advanced as a result of changes in legislation relating to ownership of property by foreigners or foreign owned companies. REX provides advice in all aspects of property law, commercial, industrial, residential and retail projects including advice relating to property development vehicles, strategies and implementation, lease agreements, sectional title developments, share block developments and fractional ownership, project-related advice, including leisure, hotels, construction, infrastructure, energy and mining projects and concessions, property rights, real estate funds, investment and facilities available to investors; general property law relating to compliance with prevailing legal and regulatory regime regarding land issues, consumer protection, and use and rights applications, registration of mortgage bonds, restitution of land rights, transactional (immovable and movable property) and advice on structuring of specialist transactions such as natural resources project developments, way-leaves, and due diligence investigations concerning landed property and handling all procedures for registration of transfer of landed property in Tanzania.

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